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Interlingue

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ThreeCirclesPlain.svg LinguesKonstrukteti lingues → Interlingue
Occidental
Unde yelb.svg
Propri nome Interlingue
Informatione
Parlat
Ofisial lingue
Parleres
Range non in 100 maxim grandi
Alfabete latini
Akademie del lingue Interlingue-Union

Linguistikal klasifikatione

Lingual familie konstrukteti lingue
Lingual grupe international auxiliari lingue
Kodes del lingue
ISO 639-1 ie
ISO 639-2 ile
ISO 639-3 ile
SIL [1]

Occidental, plu tardim Interlingue, es konstrukteti lingue kreat da estoniani naval ofisiere e instruktere Edgar de Wahl e publisat ye 1922.

Multe del formes de vordes derivat de Interlingue reflekte tes komun a kelki lingues de vesti Europa, chefim li lingues romanikal, along kun kelki vordaro germani. Mult de lun vordes es format usant li regle de de Wahl, un grupe de regles per konversione regulari de omni ma six infinitives verbal inklusent from li verbes de dupli radika latin (per exemple vider "vida" e lun derivate vision). Li resulte es un lingue naturalisti e regulari kel es fasile tu komprenda a unesmi vidindu por persones konosant kelki lingues del vest de Europa. Lektebleso e gramatike simplifikat, along kun li aparo regulari del jurnale Cosmoglotta, fat Occidental populari in Europa durante li yares ante li duesmi monde-guere malgre li penos del nazis tu suprese lingues auxiliari internationali.

Li Occidental transvivad li guere, ma li komuneso perdit li kontakte kun li kreere del lingue after 1939, quo non volid tu abandona Estonia, even kand lon hause esed destruktet in li bombardos de 1943, forsant le tu refuja in un hospitale psikiatri. Li nome del lingue esed chanjeat in 1949 pro du resones:

  1. por montrar al Soviet Unione li neutraleso del lingue,
  2. li idee de un posibli unione o kunlaboratione kun Interlingua, un konkuranti naturalisti projekte sub developo.

Mult useres esed perdit after li aparitione del ultim in 1951, komensant un periode de deklina til li venio de interete.

Historie ed aktiveso[modifika | edit source]

Li unesmi nombre de Kosmoglott (plu tardi Cosmoglotta), publikat in hasto after li anuntiatione ke li Lige de Nationes esed studiant li probleme de international lingue.

Komenso[modifika | edit source]

Edgar de Wahl did anunsia li kreatione de Interlingue in 1922 kun li unesmi nombre del magasine Cosmoglotta, publikat in Tallinn, Estonia, sub li nome Kosmoglott[1]. Occidental esed produkte de yares de experimentation personal sub li nome Auli (auxiliary language), kel lo usad ek 1906 til 1921 e kel plu tard ganad li surnome proto-Occidental. De Wahl, originalim volapukiste e tand esperantiste, komensad li kreatione de Occidental after li faliat voto tu reforma Esperanto in 1894[2].

De Wahl skriptad kon altri kreatores de lingues, inter les, li italian matematikiste Guiseppe Peano (kreatore de Latino sine Flexione), e Waldemar Rosenberger, li kreatore de Idiom Neutral[3]

Parteprendantes de un renkontro de Occidental in Wien, 1928: Engelbert Pigal, Karl Janotta, A. Deminger, Hanns Hörbiger, Eugen Moess, Franz Houdek, Johann Robert Hörbiger
Renkontro de usatores del lingue Occidental (Interlingue) in Wien in li yare 1927.

Kande lu esed anuntiat in 1922, Occidental esed preske kompleti[4][5]. De Wahl non had intentet tu anunsia li lingue durant kelki yares, ma desised tu akselera lun publikatione after audi ke li Lige de Nationes esed studiant li probleme de international lingue[6][7]. Li unesmi publikatione in Occidental, un librete titlelisat Transcendent Algebra, da Jacob Linzbach, aparid poki ante li debuto de Kosmoglott[8].

Occidental komensad rekolta sekueres pro lun lektebleso, malgre li manko de gramatikes e vortaros[9]. Du yares plu tardi, in 1924, de Wahl skripted ke lo esed sendant poste kon 30 persones "in bon Occidental" malgre li manka de materiale por lerno[10], e li useres de altri lingues komensad tu junkte Occidental[11]. Li unesmi lexike, li Radicarium Directiv, un kolektajo de radikes de Occidental e lusen equivalentis in ot lingues, esed publikat li yare sekuent[12].

Kosmoglott esed un forume por altri lingues konstrukteti, durant ke lu esed skriptet primi in Occidental. Li nome esed kambiat a Cosmoglotta in 1927 , kande lu komensad tu promote Occidental ofisialim, ed in januare li editorie e lun opfisie esed movat a Mauer (Wien), nun parte de Liesing[13][14]. Multi del frui suksese de Occidental in disi periode venid del situation centrali del ofisie, along kon li penos de Engelbert Pigal, anke fro Austria, kelen artikle Li Ovre de Edgar de Wahl dukted a intereso pri Occidental fro useres de Ido[14]. Li uso in Fransia komensad in 1928, e in li komenso del sekuenti dekade li komuneso de Occidental esed establit in Germania, Austria, Suedia, Chekoslovakia e Suisia[15].

Periode de Wien e duesmi munde-guere[modifika | edit source]

Postekarte reklamal kun texte in Occidental kreat in Wien in li yare 1928.

Li periode de Wien esed markat per li estabileso finansial. Kun li helpo de du sekunderes, Hans Hörbiger, anke ex Wien, e G.A. Moore ex London, Cosmoglotta prosperad malgre li krise ekonomi. After li du morid in 1931, Cosmoglotta esed denove forsat tu dependa de revenu ex subskriptiones e ripublikationes[16].

Li kreskant movo komensad tu kampania plu pro Occidental in li frui dekade de 1930[17], profintant lun lektebleso per kontakta organisationes kun postum in Occidental ke esed komprendat e respondat[18][19]. Registrationes de Occidental parlat sur registros de gramofone esed unesmi fat in dis periode[20][21].

Li yares fro 1935 til 1939 esed partikularim aktivi por Cosmoglotta e un duesmi editione del jurnales esed publikat. Originalim titlisat Cosmoglotta-Informationes[22], lu esed rinomisatCosmoglotta B. In li frui 1936, non kontante li 110 nombres de Cosmoglotta e altri jurnales, existed in totale 180 publikationes in e pri Occidental[23][24].

Ma li yares ante li Duesmi Monde-Guere kread desfasiles por Occidental e altri lingues planat. Les esed interdiktet in Germania[25], Austria[26], e Chekoslovakia[27], forsad tu desbanda, e mantenad sub vigilantie dal Gestapo[28], kel anke destrukted materiales instruktional[29]. Li interdiktione de lingues auxiliari in Germania esed partikularim damajant pro ke dis esed vor li maxim occidentalistes vivad in dat tempe[30]. Li nonpovo tu asepta pago pro subskriptiones esed suflo finansial ke kontinuad after li guere[31] along kun li divisiones de Germania in ares de influentie, non omni de keles permised pagos[32].

De Wahl, in Tallinn, non povad tu komunika kun li Occidental-Union in Suisia fro 1939 til oktobre 1947, unesmi pro li guere e after li interseptione de poste inter Suisia e li Soviet Unione[33][34]. Nonkonsiosi de to, de Wahl esed perplexi pro li manko de responda a sen kontinuat poste; even un grandi kolektaje de poesie traduktet a Occidental nulitem esed livrat. Li soli poste da lo reseptat in Suisia venid in 1947, demandant li Occidental-Union quirez lu non had respondat nuli poste[35].Durantu, li hause de de Wahl e lon libriere esed destruktet durant li bombardo de Tallinn. De Wahl mem esed prisonat pro un tempe pos refusa tu liva Estonia por Germania, e plu tard refujad in un hospitale psikiatri vor lo vivat li reste de lon vivo[36][37].

Li komenso del guere in 1939 haltad li publikationes de ambi Cosmoglottas tra 1940, ma in 1941 Cosmoglotta B komensad tu publika denove e kontinuad til 1950[38]. Un editione de od Cosmoglotta A o B esed publikat chaskun mensu inter januare 1937 e septembre 1939, e tand (after li choko initial del guere) chaskun mensu from septembre 1941 til june 1951[38]. Durant li guere, soli tes in neutrali Suisia e Suedia povad devota se al lingue, fante aktivesos miofisialim[39][40].

Durant li guere, li occidentalistes remarkad ke li lingue often esed permiset in telegrames in e exter Suisia (spesialim a e fro Suedia)[41] even sin rekonose ofisiali, kredant ke li senseres povad komprenda lu[42] e mey ha kredat ke les esed skriptat in spanum o romanchum[43]. To permised kelki komunikatione inter li occidentalistes de Suisia e Suedia. Altri sentres de aktiveso occidentalist in Europa vadad tam bonim, kun li materiales in Wien e Tallinn destruktet in li bombardos[44] e numerosi occidentalistes sendat a agres de konsentratione in Germania e Chekoslovakia[45][46] .

Li kontaktos esed riestablit after li guere da tes qui restat, kun postes fro landes kom Fransia, Chekoslovakia, Finland e Unionati Rejio sendat a Cosmoglotta. Skripteres dikted ke les povad komensa aktivesos denove por li lingue[47][48]. Cosmoglotta had subskripteres in 58 urbes in Suisia[49] kelki mensus ante li fine del Duesmi Monde-Guere in Europa, e Cosmoglotta A komensad tu publika denove in 1946[38].

Modelisatione del lingue[modifika | edit source]

Durant li milite mult occidentalistes modelisad li lingue[50]. De Wahl kread Occidental kun nombre de nonkambiante tretes, ma lo kredad ke lu sekuent li "leges del vivo" donad lu un base sat fermi ke povud sekuer "naturali evolutione"[51] kun un flexiblese ke vud "permiser tempo e praktika tu sorga modifikationes ke vud prova es nesesari"[52].

Kom resulte, kelki vordes had plu kam un forme permiseble, kel no povad es resolu per dekrete, talim livant li desisiones finali al komuneso per inklusent ambi formes posibli in li unesmi lexikes de Occidental[53]. Un exemple es li verbe scrir ("skripte") e altri forme posibli es scripter, pro ke ambi formes krea derivationes rikonosabli internationalim: scritura e scritor from scrir, o scriptura e scriptor fro scripter[54]. De Wahl expresed un preferentis pro scrir, trovant scripter tro pesosi, ma komentad ke li ultim esed permiseble e ke Occidental mey prenda un evolutione simili al lingues natural in quel ambi formes es usat: kun li plu long por situesos formal e li plu kurt por situesos nonformal (kom story e history in anglesi)[54].

Li ortografia eses altri area in kel existad diversi posiblesos: un ortografia etimologi (adtractiv, obpression), histori (attractiv, oppression) o simplifikat (atractiv, opression)[55]. Li ortografia simplifikat devenid li standard in 1939[56]. Kun dutos ankor restant pri li forme ofisial de kelki vordes e li manko de materiale por li publiko generali[57], mult tempe del Duesmi Monde-Guere Mondal esed spendat in modelisa li lingue e krea kurses, e pro ke li guere ankor kontinuad, in auguste1943 li desisione esed fat tu krea un academie interime por ofisialisa disi prosese[50].

Dis prosese ha komensa non longe ante li guere , e li occidentalistes suisian, trovant se isolatat fro li reste del kontinente, optad tu konsentra sur materiales por aprende, por have les pronti ye li fine del guere [58][59].

IALA, Interlingua e kambio de nome a Interlingue[modifika | edit source]

Li Asosiatione del Lingue Auxiliari Internationale (IALA), fondat ye 1924 por studia e determina li maxim boni planat lingue por komunikatione internationali, esed vidad kun suspekto dal Occidental komuneso. Lun fundatere Alice Vanderbilt Morris esed esperantiste, kom mult de lun laboreres, e mult occidentalistes inklusent de Wahl se kredad ke lun gidereso sub li esperantiste William Edward Collinson signifikad ke lu had esed kreat sub un pretexto de es siential e neutral por rekomendatione final de esperanto. Li relationes plubonisat kand lu devenid limpid ke li IALA intented es tam neutral kam posibli per familiarisa se kun omni planat lingue. Ric Berger, important occidentalist quo plu tardi junkted Interlingua in li yares 1950, visitat personalim a Morris in 1935 e la e lan marito montrad kurioseso por Occidental e invitad le tu parla in li lingue. Dis plubonisad li opinione de Berger pri li organisatione.

In 1945, li IALA anunsiad ke lu planad tu krea lun propri lingue e montrat quar posibli versiones sub konsideratione, omni de les esent naturalisti[60]. Li occidentalistes esed plesat ke li IALA had desise tu krea un lingue tam simili in nature a Occidental, vidant lu kom un asosiatione kredabli ke donad importantie a lesen argumente ke un lingue auxiliari vud veni ek li studia de lingues naturali kom un venko por li skola naturali[60] e "preske li sam lingue" in 1948[61]. Berger ankore had reservationes, dutant ob projekte tam similari vud pova u "kasua ke li prejudikos [konter lingues planat] tu fali e krea uneso inter li partisanes de lingues international"[62]. Berger anke pavorad ke lu "poves disperse li partisanes del lingue natural kun nulu tu montra por lu" after Occidental ha krea "uneso in li skole naturalisti" por tam long"[62].

Durant ke li du lingues havad 90% lexike identi[63] sin egarda diferos ortografi (filosofie e philosophia kom li sam vorde), strukturalim e derivationalim esed mult diferent. Li regle de Wahl in Occidental had finit kun li verbes latin de dupli radike, durante ke Interlingua simplim aseptad les kom part de un sisteme naturalisti[64]. Li lingues de kontrole usat in Interlingua por forma lun lexike postula ke un vorde elektabli es trovat in tri lingues fonte (li "regle de tri")[65], kel vud konflikta kon li substakte germani de Occidental e diversi altri vordes kel vud es ye definitione nonelektabli in un unifikat lingue ke retenad li metologia de Interlingua. Interlingua anke permise konjugationes verbal nonregulari optional kom so, son e sia kom li unesmi persone de singulare, triesmi persone de plurale e subjunktive de esser, li verb 'es'[66].

Occidental esed and rikovrant del guere. Cosmoglotta kontinuad tu reporta til 1946 pri quo had surviva li guere, quo inter les esed pronti tu partisipa denove e que esed nonkontaktat[67][68]. Li revue esed finansialim tenset pro li kostos inflat post li guere e li nonpovo tu kolekta pagos ek serti landes[69], in kontrasto kon li bon-finansat IALA[70], kel esed in Novi York[71].

Li politike internationali esed altri peno por occidentalistes after li guere. Li komenso del Koldi Guere kread un nonkomfortabli situatione por li Occidental-Union[72][73][74], kelen nome nonfortunosim koinsidad kun to de un lega political antiruss; li occidentalistes suisian kredad ke to esed li kauso pro kel omni poste de de Wahl fro Tallinn esed kaptat[75]. De Wahl restat nonkonsiat del developos in li lingue e li propositione durante li reste de lon vive[76]. In li komenso de 1948 li occidentalistes ek Chekoslovakia ha komensa tu peti nov nome por li lingue tu kontinua lesen aktivesos lingual sin penos, proposint Interal ("International auxiliari lingue") a kel li unione responded ke Interlingue vud es plu apti e ke les esed liberi tu prisenta li lingue kom "Interlingue (Occidental)" o even ekarta li mentione de Occidental in parentese ob les voli[77]. Ric Berger komensad tu defense li chanjo de nome fro Occidental tu Interlingue in 1948[78] kel lo anke esperad povud helpa in fusione inter li du lingues[79]. Li ofisial voto pri li chanjo de nome eventad in 1949 e esed pasat kun 91% de suporto, fant li ofisial nome Interlingue, kun Interlingue (Occidental) anke permiset, komensant in septembre 1949[80].

Li debuto de Interlingua in 1951 feblisad Interlingue-Occidental, kel til tand ha es nonrekusat in li agre del lingues auxiliari planat naturalisti. Li perseptione del situatione da Vĕra Barandovská-Frank es to:

In li agre de lingues planat naturalisti Occidental-Interlingue esed til tand nonrekusat (spesialim after li morio de Otto Jespersen, autore de Novial), depos omni novi projektes esed imitationes de lu. To aplikad anke tu Interlingua, ma lu portad kun lun un lexike de 27 000 vordes kread da linguistes profesional ke portad grand respekte, malgre in prinsipe nur konfirma li vie ke De Wahl had komensa. [...] In disi sirkumstanties li penos de Ric Berger de mova omni useres de Interlingue in mase tu Interlingua de IALA esed un choka. Lon heresia kausad duto e interruptiones in sirkles de Interlingue, spesialim after ke lo partisipad in li publikatione de "Revista de Interlingua". Li antei idee de un fusione natural de ambi lingues provad es nonrealisti, kun li du lingues devenint rivales[81][82].

Similarim, Don Harlow resuma li yare 1951 por Occidental:

Interlingua havet un pronti-fat konstituentie. Preske 30 yares ha pasa depos li kreatione de Occidental, kelen forteso in li munde "naturalisti" had prevente altri "naturalisti" projekte developa lesen propri movos. Ma li stele de Occidental had diminu depos li guere . Nun venid dis done sendad dal siele: un nove lingue konstruktet even plu "naturalisti" kam Occidental. Malgre li probas da suporteres de Occidental tu evita lu nonevitabli - per exemple, per taktikes kom rinoma lesen lingue Interlingue- maxim restant occidentalistes fad li kurti pilgrimiro al kapele de Interlingua[70].

Stagnatione e rivivatione[modifika | edit source]

Nombre 325 de Cosmoglotta por li periode januarie a desembre 2019.

Durante ke li migration de tam mult useres a Interlingua ha febli Interlingue, li sequenti fala in aktiveso esed gradual e eventad trans li dekades[83]. Cosmoglotta B sesad li publikatione after 1950, e li frequentese de Cosmoglotta A komensad tu fala: unfoy chaki duesmi mensu fro 1952, e tand unfoy chaki quatrime fro 1963[38].

Altri revues in Interlingue kontinuad tu apari durante disi tempe kom Cive del Munde (Suisia), Voce de Praha (Chekoslovakia), Sved Interlinguist (Suedia), International Memorandum (Unionati Regia), Interlinguistic Novas (Fransia), Jurnale Scolari International (Fransia), Buletine Pedagogic International (Fransia), Super li Frontieras (Fransia), Interlingue-Postillon (1958, Germania), Novas de Oriente (1958, Japan), Amicitie european (1959, Suisia), Teorie e practica (Suisia-Chekoslovakia, 1967), e Novas in Interlingue (Chekoslovakia, 1971).[82]

Barandovská-Frank kredad ke li refluxe in intereso in Occidental-Interlingue eventad al sami tempe ke li oldesko del generatione ke esed atraktet unesmi ek altri lingues planat:

Mult de tes interesat in Interlingue apartenad al generatione ke konoseskad volapük, esperando ed ido, plu tardim trovant li maxim esteti (esentialim naturali) solutione in Occidental-Interlingue. Mult sekuentim movad a Interlingua de IALA, kel tamen non pruvad es mult plu suksese malgre li impresione ke lun origine siential fad, e tes quo restad loyal a Occidental-Interlingue non suksedad in parta lesen entusiasme kun li novi generatione.[82]

Li aktiveso in Interlingue 'reached lun maxim basi punktu in li yares 1980 e komenso de 1990, kand li publikatione de Cosmoglotta sesad kelk yares. Durante ke li nombre 269 esed publikat in 1972 after publika unfoy chaki sesone inter 1963[38], li nombre 289 non aparid til somre 2000[84] por un medivalore de min kam un nombre chaki yare. Segun Harlow, "in 1985 li lasti periodale, Cosmoglotta, sesad publikatione, e lun editere, Siniore Adrian Pilgrim, es sitat kom havent deskriptad Occidental kom 'morti lingue'"[70]. Un dekade plu tard, un dokumentali filme in 1994 da Steve Hawley e Steyger pri lingues planat prisentad li parlere de Occidental Donald Gasper kom "un del lasti parleres del lingue Occidental"[85].

Kom eventad kun li altri lingues planat, li venio de Interete stimulad li rivivatione de Interlingue[86]. In li yare 1999 li unesmi Yahoo! grupe in Occidental esed kreat, Cosmoglotta had komensat tu publika denove, e li lingue deveni teme de diskusione in literature pri lingues auxiliari[87]. Un exemple es The Esperanto Book, publikat in 1995 da Harlow, quo skriptad ke Occidental haved un emfase intentional in formes european e ke kelk de lun principali sekueres haved un filosofia eurosentrali, kel poves had hindrat lun propagatione[70][88]. Tamen, li visione oposit[89][90][91][92] esed anke komuni in li komuneso e Occidental ganad adheseres in mult nationes, inklusent nationes asian. Un Wikipedie in Interlingue esed apruvat in 2004. In yares resenti renkontros ofisial de parleres de Interlingue ha rikomensa: un in Ulm in 2013[93], un altri in Munich in 2014 kun tri partisiperes[94], e un triesmi in Ulm li yare sekuenti kun sink[95].

In yares resenti, nov libres ha esed publikat in Interlingue, kom Li Mikri Prinse,[96] li Evangelie segun Mark,[96] Salute, Jonathan!, e textes da Vicente Costalago: Li sercha in li castelle Dewahl e altri racontas, Antologie hispan, and Fabules, racontas e mites.[97][98]

Gramatike[modifika | edit source]

Alfabete e pronuntiatione[modifika | edit source]

Litere[99] A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
AFI /a/ /b/ /k/, /ts/ /d/ /e/ /f/ /g/, /dʒ/ /h/ /i/ /ʒ/ /k/ /l/ /m/ /n/ /o/ /p/ /k/ /r/ /s/, /z/ /t/, /ts/ /u/ /v/ /w/ /ks/ /j/, /y/ /z/
  • c es pronuntiat kom /ts/ avan e, i, y, altrilok /k/
  • cc es pronuntiat kom /kts/ avan e, i, y, altrilok /k/
  • g e gg es pronuntiat kom /dʒ/ avan e, i, y, altrilok /g/
  • gu es pronuntiat kom /gw/ avan vokales, altrilok /gu/
  • ni es pronuntiat kom /ɲ/ avan vokales, altrilok /ni/
  • s es pronuntiat kom /z/ in medie de du vokales, altrilok /s/
  • t ed i plu un altri vokal es pronuntiat kom c, altrilok /t/

Artikle[modifika | edit source]

Interlingue have artikles definit e nondefinit. Li artikle definit es li, e li nondefinit es un.

Li plural es fat adint -s after li vokal, o -es after maxim konsonantes. Vordes finint in -c, -g, ed -m sol adi -s: un libre, du libres, li tric, li trics, li plug, li plugs, li album, pluri albums.[99]

Li fine del artikle definit pove es modifikat a lo (maskulin), la (feminin), lu (neutri), lis (plural), los (maskuin plural), e las (feminin plural).[100]

Pronomes personal[modifika | edit source]

mas. fem. n. mas. fem.
Subjekte yo tu il ella it noi vu ili (illos) (ellas)
Objekte me te le la it nos vos les (los) (las)

Posesivi[modifika | edit source]

Pronomes mi(s) tui(s) su(s) nor(es) vor(es) lor(es)
Adjektives mi tu su nor vor lor

Korelatives[modifika | edit source]

QU-

(interrogative/relative)

T-

(demonstrative)

ALQU-

(undefined)

NEQU-

(negative)

-CUNC

(indeterminate)

Ø

(collective)

-I

(persons,

standard demonstrative)

qui

(que)

ti

(te)

alqui

(kelke)

nequi

(nule)

quicunc

(whoever)

omni

(omnes)

-O

(things)

quo

(what)

to

(that)

alquo

(something)

nequo

(nothing)

quocunc

(whatever)

omno

(all)

-EL

(both persons and things)

quel

(which)

tel

(such)

alquel

(any)

nequel quelcunc

(whichever)

chascun

(each)

-AL

(quality)

qual

(which, what a)

tal

(that)

alqual

(any kind)

nequal qualcunc
-AM

(way, mode)

quam

(as)

tam

(so)

alquam

(anyhow)

nequam quamcunc

(however)

-ANT

(quantity)

quant

(how many)

tant

(so much)

alquant

(somewhat)

nequant quantcunc
-ANDE

(tempe)

quande

(quand)

tande

(tand )

alquande nequande

(nulitem)

quandecunc sempre

(omnitem)

-U

(place)

u

(where)

ci / ta

(here / there)

alcu

(somewhere)

necu

(nowhere)

ucunc

(anywhere)

partú

(everywhere)

Literature[modifika | edit source]

Li chefe literatural textes in Interlingue aparid in Cosmoglotta. Lu have anke kelki textes, ambi originali e traduktet, publikat in Interlingue.

Kelki textes publikat in Interlingue es:

  • Kajš, Jan Amos (1938) Krasina, raconta del subterrania del Moravian carst.
  • Podobský, Jaroslav (1935/1947) Li astres del Verne.
  • Costalago, Vicente (2021) Li sercha in li castelle Dewahl e altri racontas[101].
  • Costalago, Vicente (2021) Antologie hispan[102].
  • Costalago, Vicente (2021) Fabules, racontas e mites[103].
  • Costalago, Vicente (2021) Li tresor de Fluvglant[104].

Autores[modifika | edit source]

Li chefi autores que ha skripte originali literature in Interlingue es:

Referos[modifika | edit source]

  1. "Kosmoglott, 1922, p. 1". Archived from the original on 2021-06-26. 
  2. "Cosmoglotta A, 1946, p. 18". Archived from the original on 2021-04-13. 
  3. "Cosmoglotta A, 1946, p. 18". Archived from the original on 2021-04-15. 
  4. "Kosmoglott, 1925, p.40". Archived from the original on 2021-04-15. "Translation: "I found the most precise sense of "-atu" for example no earlier than 1924 ... maybe with time I will also find the precise sense of "-il, -esc, -itudo", etc."" 
  5. "Cosmoglotta B, 1947, p. 15". anno.onb.ac.at. Archived from the original on 2021-04-15. 
  6. "Cosmoglotta A, 1946, p. 27". Archived from the original on 2021-04-15. 
  7. "Kosmoglott 001, 1922, p. 4". Archived from the original on 2021-04-15. 
  8. "Transcendental Algebra". Archived from the original on 2019-08-22. 
  9. "Kosmoglott, 1925, p.7". anno.onb.ac.at. Archived from the original on 2021-04-13. 
  10. "Kosmoglott, 1924, p. 14". Archived from the original on 2021-04-15. "Translation: "He asserts that Occidental, despite being easily readable, is very difficult to write and that one could hardly find 10 people in the world able to write it without errors. Well, with me alone there is already three times that number corresponding in good Occidental."" 
  11. ""Kosmoglot" – la unua interlingvistika societo en Ruslando". Archived from [1.pdf the original] on 2020-09-22. 
  12. Wahl, E. de (1925). Radicarium directiv del lingue international (Occidental) in 8 lingues. Tallinn. OCLC 185538723. 
  13. "Cosmoglotta, 1927, p. 1". Archived from the original on 2021-04-13. 
  14. 14.0 14.1 "Cosmoglotta A, 1947, p. 17". Archived from the original on 2021-02-14. 
  15. "Helvetia, January 1930". Archived from the original on 2021-04-15. "...Occ. esset unesimli propagat per Germanes, Austrianes, Svedes, Tchecoslovacos e solmen ante du annus ha penetrat in Francia." 
  16. "Cosmoglotta B, 1937, p.79". Archived from the original on 2021-04-15. 
  17. "Cosmoglotta A, 1933, p. 20.2019-04-11". Archived from the original on 2021-04-15. 
  18. "Cosmoglotta B, 1935, p. 302019-02-20". Archived from the original on 2021-04-15. 
  19. "Cosmoglotta A, 1931, p. 92". Archived from the original on 2020-10-27. "Un commercial firma in Tchecoslovacia scri spontanmen al redaction: "Mi firma...opera in Italia solmen per li medium de Occidental, e to in omni romanic states. To es un miraculos fact. Vu posse scrir a omni romano in Occidental e il va comprender vor idées."2020-10-22" 
  20. "Cosmoglotta A, 1934, p. 52.2019-04-13". Archived from the original on 2021-04-15. 
  21. "Cosmoglotta B, 1935, p. 122019-02-20". Archived from the original on 2021-04-15. 
  22. "Cosmoglotta B (Cosmoglotta-Informationes), 1935, p. 1". Archived from the original on 2021-04-13. 
  23. "Cosmoglotta B, 1936, p. 17". Archived from the original on 2021-04-15. 
  24. "Cosmoglotta B, 1936, p. 38". Archived from the original on 2021-04-15. 
  25. "Cosmoglotta A, 1948, pg. 5". Archived from the original on 2021-02-03. "(Translation) Regrettably, public propagation of Occidental was not possible in Germany from 1935 (the year when artificial languages were banned in Germany) until the end of the war...2019-01-20" 
  26. Cosmoglotta B, 1945, p. 12. Template:Webarchive Translation öf the last pre-war Occidental postcard from Austria sent to Switzerland in December 1938: "My sadness from not being able to continue my interlinguistic work continues and has made me almost melancholic. Please do not send me mail in Occidental."
  27. Cosmoglotta B, 1944, p. 109. Template:Webarchive Translation: "The reality is that Occidental, like the other international languages, is prohibited in Germany, that the Occidental societies have been disbanded there (also in Czechoslovakia and Austria) even before the war, and that only regime change in those countries will make Occidental propagation a possibility again.
  28. "Cosmoglotta A, 1948, p. 122". Archived from the original on 2021-03-24. "English translation: The final exchange of telegrams between us was your telegram in March 1938 where you asked me if I would go to The Hague to participate in the IALA conference, and my quick negative response, not followed by a letter explaining why. You certainly had guessed the cause, but you cannot know what actually happened. Immediately after the coming of Hitler I had the "honour", as president of an international organisation, to be watched by the Gestapo, which interrogated me multiple times and searched through my house, confiscating a large part of my correspondence and my interlinguistic material."2019-02-02" 
  29. "Cosmoglotta B, 1948, p. 33.". Archived from the original on 2021-04-15. "Translation: "I myself lost my entire rich Occidental-Interlingue possessions in 1936 through home raids by the infamous Gestapo...How thankful you must be to your governments which have avoided such catastrophes that our land (Germany) has suffered, one after another, for 35 years now."2019-01-16" 
  30. "Cosmoglotta A, 1946, p. 322019-01-06". Archived from the original on 2021-04-15. 
  31. "Cosmoglotta B, 1946, p. 11". Archived from the original on 2021-04-13. 
  32. "Cosmoglotta B, 1947, p. 107". Archived from the original on 2021-04-13. 
  33. "Cosmoglotta B, 1947, p. 100". anno.onb.ac.at. Archived from the original on 2021-04-15. 
  34. "Cosmoglotta A, 1948, p. 100". Archived from the original on 2021-04-13. 
  35. "Cosmoglotta B, 1948, p. 99". Archived from the original on 2021-04-13. 
  36. Barandovská-Frank, Vĕra. "Latinidaj planlingvoj (AIS-kurso, 1 studunuo)". Archived from the original on 2019-01-23. ""Post la okupo de Tallinn per sovetia armeo estis deportita kaj malaperinta la edzino de De Wahl, lia domo komplete forbruliĝis dum bombardado, detruiĝis lia riĉa biblioteko kaj manuskriptoj. Post la alveno de naziaj trupoj De Wahl rifuzis translokiĝon al Germanio kaj estis enkarcerigita. Por savi lin, liaj amikoj lasis proklami lin mense malsana. En la jaro 1944, 77-jaraĝa, li eniris sanatorion Seewald apud Tallinn kaj restis tie ankaŭ post la milito, ne havante propran loĝejon"2019-01-22" 
  37. "Cosmoglotta A, 1948, p. 98". Archived from the original on 2021-04-13. 
  38. 38.0 38.1 38.2 38.3 38.4 "Plan de aparition de KOSMOGLOTT 1922–1926 e COSMOGLOTTA 1927–1972 (Austrian National Library)2019-01-28". Archived from the original on 2021-04-15. 
  39. "Cosmoglotta B, 1941, p. 1". Archived from the original on 2021-07-09. 
  40. "Cosmoglotta B, 1943, p. 85". Archived from the original on 2021-07-09. 
  41. "Cosmoglotta B, 1946, p.8.". anno.onb.ac.at. Archived from the original on 2021-02-07. "English translation: "At the assembly of the Swiss Association for Occidental in Bienne it was noted with satisfaction that despite the war the cooperation at least with the Swedish worldlanguage friends was always able to be maintained, in that the letters and telegrams written in Occidental passed by the censors without problem."" 
  42. "Cosmoglotta B, 1943, p. 6 2018-12-10". Archived from the original on 2021-04-15. 
  43. "Cosmoglotta B, 1945, p. 15 2018-12-10". Archived from the original on 2021-04-15. 
  44. "Cosmoglotta B, 1946, p.9". anno.onb.ac.at2018-12-22. Archived from the original on 2021-04-15. 
  45. "Cosmoglotta B, 1945, p. 119.". anno.onb.ac.at. Archived from the original on 2021-04-13. "English translation: "When I arrived in Prague after my escape from the concentration of Leitmeritz, I had literally nothing except a ragged prison uniform, the so-called "pyjama" of the prison camps...Soon after I arrived in Prague I published an ad to search friends of the international language..."" 
  46. "Cosmoglotta B, 1945, p. 83.". anno.onb.ac.at. Archived from the original on 2021-04-15. "English translation: "The letters from France are starting to arrive in Switzerland. Especially appreciated are those from Mr. Lerond, a teacher in Bréville tra Donville (Manche) and from Mr. René Chabaud, who happily returned safe and sound from a prison camp in Germany."" 
  47. "Cosmoglotta B, 1946, p. 108". Archived from the original on 2021-08-01. 
  48. "Cosmoglotta B, 1946. p. 119-120". Archived from the original on 2021-04-13. 
  49. "Cosmoglotta B, 1945, p. 24 2018-12-10". Archived from the original on 2021-03-30. 
  50. 50.0 50.1 Cosmoglotta B, 1943, p. 85: Template:Webarchive English translation: "Because the president and secretary of the Academy are located in countries in a state of war, the leading Occidentalists of the neutral countries, Switzerland and Sweden, believe it necessary to set up an INTERIM ACADEMY which will function until the other will be able to resume its work. The decisions of this interim academy will be conditional, i.e.: must be validated by the regular Academy after the war, and due to that it will deliver to it all documents justifying its decisions, with detailed reasons."
  51. "Kosmoglott, 1922, p. 65". Archived from the original on 2021-04-13. 
  52. "Cosmoglotta A, 1927, p. 95". Archived from the original on 2021-04-15. 
  53. Cosmoglotta B, 1945, p. 3: Template:Webarchive Translation: "For some hundreds of international words there are two forms between which it is not easy to know which one is better. E. de Wahl wisely wrote both in the first dictionaries, with the intention to let practice make the decision."
  54. 54.0 54.1 Kosmoglott, 1925, p. 14. May 19252020-12-16. Archived from the original on 2021-04-13. 
  55. "Cosmoglotta B, 1944, p. 66 2018-12-07". Archived from the original on 2021-04-15. 
  56. Schmidt, Dr. Thomas (2020). GROSSES MODERNES WÖRTERBUCH INTERLINGUE (OCCIDENTAL) – DEUTSCH. Berlin. p. 2. "Von seiner Entstehung bis zum Ausbruch des Zweiten Weltkrieges 1939 wurde die Rechtschreibung der Sprache deutlich vereinfacht. Diese sogenannte „simplificat ortografie“ löste die alte „historic ortografie“ ab." 
  57. "Cosmoglotta B, 1938, p. 82". Archived from the original on 2021-04-15. 
  58. "Cosmoglotta B, 1938, p. 82". Archived from the original on 2021-04-15. 
  59. "Cosmoglotta B, 1939, p. 1". Archived from the original on 2021-04-15. 
  60. 60.0 60.1 "Cosmoglotta A, 1948, p. 84". Archived from the original on 2021-04-15. 
  61. "Cosmoglotta A, 1948, p. 342019-01-26". Archived from the original on 2021-04-15. 
  62. 62.0 62.1 "Cosmoglotta B, 1948, p. 292019-01-26". Archived from the original on 2021-04-15. 
  63. Barandovská-Frank, Vĕra. "Latinidaj planlingvoj (AIS-kurso, 1 studunuo)". Archived from the original on 2019-01-23. "Alphonse Matejka konstatis, ke la publikigita vortprovizo de Interlingua en 90% kongruas kun tiu de Interlingue, se oni ne rigardas ortografion (historian kaj simpligitan) kaj uzon de finaj vokaloj.2019-01-22" 
  64. Gode, Alexander; Blair, Hugh (19512020-10-21). "Appendix 1 (Double-Stem Verbs)". A grammar of Interlingua. International Auxiliary Language Association. Archived from the original on 2020-10-23. 
  65. "Le tres principios principal del standardization international in interlingua". Archived from the original on 2021-04-13. 
  66. "Interlingua-English Dictionary S". Archived from the original on 2007-12-13. 
  67. "Cosmoglotta B, 1945, p. 120". Archived from the original on 2021-04-13. 
  68. "Cosmoglotta B, 1946, p. 4". Archived from the original on 2021-04-13. 
  69. "Cosmoglotta B, 1948, p. 12". Archived from the original on 2021-04-15. "Translation: "Unfortunately, in 1947 we were not able to publish more than two printed editions: the enormous increase of printing costs and the difficulties transferring the credits accumulated in certain countries were the reasons why we had to be prudent about expenses...even though printing costs have increased by 5 times compared to before the war, the subscription fees have remained the same. Regretfully we have been forced to increase the subscription price this year to 8 Swiss francs..."2019-01-26" 
  70. 70.0 70.1 70.2 70.3 Harlow, Don. The Esperanto Book, Chapter 3: "Archived copy 2008-09-09". Archived from the original on 2012-02-04. .
  71. "Historia de Interlingua". www.interlingua.com. 
  72. "Cosmoglotta B, 1948, p. 7". Archived from the original on 2021-04-15. ""Li recent evenimentes politic e li division del munde in du sectores de influentie (occidental e oriental) ha mettet nor propagatores de quelc landes in delicat situation. It ha devenit desfacil nu parlar pri un lingue de quel li nómine in cert landes evoca suspectiones in li circul politic. Pro to nor Centrale ha recivet ti-ci mensus, precipue de Tchecoslovacia, propositiones usar vice li nómine de Occidental ti de Interal (=INTER/national Auxiliari lingue)."2019-02-01" 
  73. Barandovská-Frank, Vĕra. "Latinidaj planlingvoj (AIS-kurso, 1 studunuo)". Archived from the original on 2019-01-23. ""La postmilita divido de Eŭropo en orientan kaj okcidentan sektoron sentigis la nomon “Occidental” propagando por kapitalisma okcidento, tial venis proponoj ŝanĝi la nomon."2019-01-22" 
  74. Pigal, Engelbert (1950). Interlingue (Occidental), die Weltsprache. Wien, Austria: Gesellschaft Cosmoglotta. p. 4. OCLC 67940249. "Schließlich wurde aus Gründen der Neutralität mit 1. September 1949 der Name der Sprache in Interlingue geändert." 
  75. "Cosmoglotta A, 1948, p. 99". Archived from the original on 2021-04-13. "Translation: "One should not forget that the name Occidental had been selected in 1922, when it had absolutely no political significance. And today, by strange chance the title of the Occidental-Union coincides with that of a political league opposed to the Russians. It is possible that in Tallinn they considered de Wahl a person requiring police surveillance. How to protest and explain the misunderstanding from so far away?"2019-02-01" 
  76. "Occidental A, 1948, p. 98". Archived from the original on 2021-04-13. 
  77. "Cosmoglotta B, 1948, p. 72019-02-01". Archived from the original on 2021-04-15. 
  78. "Biographias: Ric(hard) Berger". Archived from the original on 2021-04-13. "Postea, de 1934 a 1950, ille esseva co-redactor del magazin del Occidental-Union, "Cosmoglotta", e esseva le interprenditor in 1948 quando occidental – presentate per le estoniano Edgar de Wahl – cambiava nomine a interlingue.2020-12-18" 
  79. "Cosmoglotta, summer 2000". Archived from the original on 2018-12-15. "Proque yo esperat que noi vell posser un vez fusionar con Interlingua, ti-ci nov nómine devet facilisar li transition por nor membres, evitante talmen, coram li publica, un nov radical changeament de nómine. Yo dunc proposit, in februar 1948, in Cosmoglotta, remplazzar li nómine Occidental per Interlingue malgré li oposition del presidente del Academie.2018-12-13" 
  80. "Cosmoglotta A, 1949, p. 112". Archived from the original on 2020-07-24. "English translation: "91% of the voters have adopted the proposition of the Senate of the Occidental Union, i.e. the new name: INTERLINGUE. The usage of the name INTERLINGUE, or if one wishes INTERLINGUE (Occ.) is valid from 1.9.1949."2019-02-09" 
  81. Barandovská-Frank, Vĕra. "Latinidaj planlingvoj (AIS-kurso, 1 studunuo)". Archived from the original on 2019-01-23. ""...la simileco inter ambaŭ interlingvoj estas tiom granda, ke certe eblos iu racia sintezo inter ili, konkludis Matejka en 1951...La senato de Interlingue-Union kaj la Interlingue-Academie pritraktis la proponojn, ke (1) Interlingue Union iĝu kolektiva membro de IALA kaj (2) Interlingue-Union restu favora al estonta aktiveco de IALA kaj morale subtenu ĝin. La unua propono ne estis akceptita, sed jes la dua, do praktike kunlaboro kaj subteno de Interlingua."2019-01-22" 
  82. 82.0 82.1 82.2 Barandovská-Frank, Vĕra. "Latinidaj planlingvoj (AIS-kurso, 1 studunuo)". p. 182019-01-22. Archived from the original on 2019-01-23. 
  83. Esterhill, Frank (2000). Interlingua Institute : A History. Interlingua Institute. ISBN 0-917848-02-0. 
  84. "Cosmoglotta A, Summer 2000". Archived from the original on 2021-09-22. 
  85. Hawley, Steve (2010-06-01). Language Lessons 1994. Archived from the original on 2019-12-11. 
  86. Barandovská-Frank, Vĕra. "Latinidaj planlingvoj (AIS-kurso, 1 studunuo)". Archived from the original on 2019-01-23. 
  87. "IE-Munde – Jurnal e information pri Interlingue (Occidental)". www.ie-munde.com. Archived from the original on 2019-01-30. 
  88. "Cosmoglotta A, 1927, p. 33". Archived from the original on 2021-04-13. 
  89. "Cosmoglotta A, 1927, p. 64". Archived from the original on 2021-04-15. "Yo confesse que yo vide poc in li Europan cultura del ultim 1900 annus quel es tam remarcabilmen preciosi. To quo es max visibil es tyrannie, oppression, guerres e nigri superstition.2020-10-18" 
  90. "Cosmoglotta A, 1949, p.108". Archived from the original on 2020-07-24. "In ti témpor yo esset in Sydney, e pro que yo havet grand interesse por li indigenes e volet converter mi blanc fratres a un bon opinion pri ili, yo scrit in li presse pri ti heroic action e comparat li brutalitá del blanc rasse con li conciliantie e self-sacrificie del negros.2020-10-18" 
  91. "Cosmoglotta A, 1937". Archived from the original on 2021-04-15. "JAPAN: Kokusaigo-Kenkyusho, Daita 11-784, Setagaya, TOKIO (Pch. Tokio 62 061)2019-01-29" 
  92. "Cosmoglotta A, 1958, p. 66, 77". GitHub. Archived from the original on 2021-09-15. 
  93. "Litt incontra in Ulm.". IE-MUNDE (Revúe in Interlingue-Occidental) Numeró 7 – Octobre 2013. 
  94. "IE-Munde – Jurnal e information pri Interlingue (Occidental)". www.ie-munde.com2019-01-30. Archived from the original on 2019-01-30. 
  95. "TRIESIM MINI-INCONTRA DE INTERLINGUE". IE-MUNDE (Revúe in Interlingue-Occidental) Numeró 11 – Octobre 2015. 
  96. 96.0 96.1 "IE-Munde – Jurnal e information pri Interlingue (Occidental)". www.ie-munde.com. 
  97. Li sercha in li castelle Dewahl e altri racontas. 
  98. Fabules, racontas e mites. 
  99. 99.0 99.1 Grammatica de Interlingue in English Template:Webarchive, F. Haas 1956. Read 31 October 2013.
  100. "Cosmoglotta A, 1927, p. 96". Archived from the original on 2021-04-13. 
  101. Li sercha in li castelle Dewahl e altri racontas
  102. Antologie hispan
  103. Fabules, racontas e mites
  104. Li tresor de Fluvglant

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Konstrukteti lingues
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