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Present and Past
Infinitive and Imperative[edit source]
In the infinitive many constructed languages take the ending -r or -re from the Romanic languages (in F -er the consonant is now mute); Pirro took -en from D. But there is no necessity to have a separate ending for the infinitive, as shown by such divergent languages as English and Chinese; and we therefore take the simple stem: ama, protekte, mari, konstitu, es. Wherever necessary, we may indicate that it is an infinitive we are using, by prefixing the particle tu (from the spoken form of E to D zu; the form to is wanted as a pronoun): tu lekte stranjeri ligue es plu fasil kam tu parla to read a foreign language is easier than to speak. But no mark is wanted in me voli (desira, intente) lekte, etc.
Tu makes it possible to make the distinction between me prega vu non tu neglekte tum ( = me non prega...) I don't ask you to... and me prega vu tu non neglekte tum I ask you not to neglect that (to not n.).
The imperative needs no special ending; the simple stem is used in many languages (E go! D geh! L duc! etc.). Thus N Veni! Come! In favour of the identity of infinitive and imperative one may adduce such well-known instances as D Rechts gehen! Nicht hinauslehnen! F Voir page 2, etc.
This is simpler than the Occ way of saying ples (from E please) with the infinite "Ples considerar!" - is this form also to be used in an angry command?
From E we may take let: let nus starta (but `he would not let us start' lo non permised a nus tu starta). Let pluva let it rain (qu'il pleuve)! Let on pensa kom on voli let people think as they like (qu'on pense ce qu'on veut)! Wishes are expressed by mey (E, spelt with e on account of maye the month May): mey lo viva longitem!