Komparo inter Novial e Esperanto

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(Traduktendi)


Alfabete e Pronuntiatione[modifika | edit source]

Amb Esperanto e Novial es skriptet per versiones del Latini alfabete. Li Esperanto alfabete have 28 literes: 22 sin diakritikes e 6 kun diakritikes uniki a Esperanto: ĉ, ĝ, ĥ, ĵ, ŝ e ŭ. Novial usa li standardi 26 literes del latin alfabete kun nuli diakritikes.

Esperanto
IPA Pronunciation
Novial
A, a
a
A, a
B, b
b
B, b
C, c
ʦ
TS, ts; but most of the time when Esperanto has 'c', Novial uses 's' in their respective words.
Ĉ, ĉ
ʧ
CH, ch; SH, sh
D, d
d
D, d
E, e
e or ɛ
E, e
F, f
f
F, f
G, g
g
G, g
Ĝ, ĝ
ʤ
J, j
H, h
h
H, h
Ĥ, ĥ
χ
absent; Novial uses k to transliterate the Greek chi and other loans.
I, i
i
I, i
J, j
j
Y, y
Ĵ, ĵ
ʒ
J, j
K, k
k
K, k
L, l
l
L, l
M, m
m
M, m
N, n
n
N, n
O, o
o or ɒ
O, o
P, p
p
P, p
KŬ, kŭ or KV, kv
kw or kv
QU, qu
R, r
r
R, r
S, s
s
S, s (also Z,z)
Ŝ, ŝ
ʃ
SH, sh; CH, ch
T, t
t
T, t
U, u
u
U, u
Ŭ, ŭ
w
W, w (before a vowel)

U, u (after a vowel)

V, v
v
V, v
KS, ks or GZ, gz; but Esperanto writes it KZ, kz
ks or gz
X, x
J, j
j
Y, y
Z, z
z
Z, z (also S, s)

In Esperanto un litere koresponda a un foneme e un foneme a un litere: es nuli digrames. Novial have 3 digrames: ch, sh e qu; c e q es uniki a disi digrames (exept in altrilingual propri nomines) e non permise ambigueso; kand s e h es separati fonemes disum bli indika per separant per ligostreke: s-h. Novial permits some 2-vowel combinations to be pronounced either as 2 separate vowels or as diphthongs; for example, au, eu and oi may be pronounced as a + w, e + w and o + y, respectively, and ie, io and ia as y + e, y + o and y + a, respectively.

In handwriting neither Esperanto nor Novial presents any problem. However, the diacritics of Esperanto require special methods for typing and printing. The original method was a set of digraphs now known as the "h-system", but with the rise of computer word processing a so-called "x-system" has become equally popular. These systems are described in the article Esperanto orthography. However, with the advent of Unicode, the need for such work-arounds has lessened.

Personal Pronouns[modifika | edit source]

The personal pronouns of Esperanto all end in i and some may be difficult to distinguish in a noisy environment (especially mi and ni). The personal pronouns of Novial use various vowels making them more distinct, although some differ only in the initial consonant (e.g. nus, vus and lus). A later form of nusnos, more distinct from vus – has sometimes been used. Novial does not distinguish familiar and polite forms of “you” (e.g. French tu and vous). Novial’s inventor argued that such a distinction has no place in a language intended solely for international use. The distinction is available in Esperanto but is little used in practice.

Pronouns
singular plural indef.
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
familiar formal m. f. n. pan-gender m. f. n. pan-gender
English I thou¹ you¹ he she it he/it we you       they one
Esperanto mi ci¹ vi¹ li ŝi ĝi ĝi² ni vi       ili oni
Novial me vu vu lo la lu le nus vus los las lus les on

¹ ci and thou, while technically the familiar form of the word "you" in Esperanto and English, respectively, are almost never used. Results on Google have shown that ci is used less than half of one percent of the amount vi is in Esperanto. Zamenhof himself did not include the pronoun in the first book on Esperanto and only later reluctantly; later he recommended against using ci on the grounds that different cultures have conflicting traditions regarding the use of the familiar and formal forms of "you", and that a universal language should avoid the problem by simply using the formal form in all situations. Novial uses only vu as the singular "you".

² tiu, "that person", is usually used in this circumstance, because many people find it unnatural to use "it" referring to humans.

The Novial system displays a systematic correspondence between singular and corresponding plural forms (i.e. vu, vus; lo, los; la, las; lu, lus; le, les). Strictly speaking "we" is not the plural of "I", because "many I’s" is nonsensical. Jespersen suggested that nu, the singular of nus could be used as a "royal we". The optional marking of sex in Novial, especially in the third person plural, permits greater flexibility than in Esperanto. Exactly the same system is applied to other pronouns and to nouns with natural sex differences.

Marking Sex[modifika | edit source]

The system of sex marking for Esperanto nouns is frequently criticised for being asymmetric and male biased. In contrast Novial has one symmetric, unbiased system for both nouns and pronouns which marks either male, female, epicene or inanimate.

Verbal Systems[modifika | edit source]

The grammars of Novial and Esperanto differ greatly in the way that the various tenses, moods and voices of verbs are expressed. Both use a combination of auxiliary verbs and verb endings. However, Novial uses many more auxiliary verbs and few endings, while Esperanto uses only one auxiliary verb and a greater number of verb endings.

In Novial all verb forms are independent of person (1st, 2nd or 3rd persons) and number (singular or plural). In Esperanto verb forms are independent of the person but compound tenses, with participles, require the participle (which is an adjective) to agree with the subject of the verb in number (singular or plural).

The continuous tenses are less common in both Esperanto and Novial than in English.

In the following table endings are separated from stems by hyphens. Alternative forms with the same meaning are in brackets. In the Esperanto forms (j) indicates agreement when the subject of the verb is plural.

Active Voice[modifika | edit source]

Active Voice
English
Esperanto
Novial
Infinitive
(to) love
am-i
ama
Simple present
love(s)
am-as
ama
Future
will (shall) love
am-os
sal ama
Simple past
loved
am-is
did ama (ama-d)
Past perfect
have (has) loved
est-as am-int-a(j)
ha ama
Pluperfect
had loved
est-is am-int-a(j)
ha-d ama
Future perfect
will (shall) have loved
est-os am-int-a(j)
sal ha ama
Future in the past
was going to (would, should) love
est-is am-ont-a(j)
sal-ed ama
Conditional
would (should) love
am-us
vud ama
Conditional perfect
would (should) have loved
est-us am-int-a(j)
vud ha ama
First imperative
let us love!
ni am-u!
let nus ama!
Second imperative
love!
am-u!
ama!
Third imperative
let him love!
li am-u!
let lo ama!
Present continous
is (am, are) loving
est-as am-ant-a(j)
es ama-nt
Future continuous
shall (will) be loving
est-os am-ant-a(j)
sal es ama-nt
Past continuous
was (were) loving
est-is am-ant-a(j)
did es (es-ed) ama-nt


Passive Voice[modifika | edit source]

The difference between the passive of becoming and the passive of being is not always immediately obvious to English speakers because their forms can often be the same. However, in English the passive of becoming is often expressed with the verb get in the sense of become as well as with the verb be.

Passive Voice of Becoming[modifika | edit source]

Esperanto uses an appropriate form of the auxiliary verb esti (to be) followed by a passive participle (present, past or future according to sense). With many verbs Esperanto may, instead of the passive voice, use the suffix -iĝ- to form an intransitive verb of becoming, which is conjugated in the active voice (see table below).

Novial uses the auxiliary verb bli (to get, become, be from the equivalent auxiliary verb bli in Scandinavian languages) followed by the root form of the verb. The various tenses and moods are expressed regularly using the other auxiliary verbs ha, had, sal, saled and vud, the word order corresponding to the English.

Passive Voice of Becoming
English
Esperanto
Novial
Infinitive
(to) get absorbed
est-i absorb-at-a(j) (absorb-iĝ-i)
bli absorba
Simple present
get(s) absorbed
est-as absorb-at-a(j)
(absorb-iĝ-as)
bli absorba
Future
will (shall) get absorbed
est-os absorb-at-a(j)
(absorb-iĝ-os)
sal bli absorba
Simple past
got absorbed
est-is absorb-at-a(j)
(absorb-iĝ-is)
bli-d absorba
Past perfect
have (has) got absorbed
est-as absorb-it-a(j)
(est-as absorb-iĝ-ant-a(j))
ha bli absorba
Pluperfect
had got absorbed
est-is absorb-it-a(j)
(est-is absorb-iĝ-ant-a(j))
ha-d bli absorba
Future perfect
will (shall) have got absorbed
est-os absorb-it-a(j)
(est-os absorb-iĝ-ant-a(j))
sal ha bli absorba
Future in the past
was going to (would, should) get absorbed
est-is absorb-ot-a(j)
(est-is absorb-iĝ-ont-a(j))
sal-ed bli absorba
Conditional
would (should) get absorbed
est-us absorb-at-a(j)
(absorb-iĝ-us)
vud bli absorba
Conditional perfect
would (should) have got absorbed
est-us absorb-it-a(j)
(est-us absorb-iĝ-ant-a(j))
vud ha bli absorba
First imperative
let us get absorbed!
ni est-u absorb-ataj!
(ni absorb-iĝ-u!)
let nus bli absorba!
Second imperative
get absorbed!
est-u absorb-at-a(j)!
(absorb-iĝ-u!)
bli absorba!
Third imperative
let him get absorbed!
li est-u absorb-at-a!
(li absorb-iĝ-u)
let lo bli absorba!
Present continous
is (am, are) getting absorbed
est-as absorb-at-a(j)
(est-as absorb-iĝ-ant-a(j))
es bli-nt absorba
Future continuous
shall (will) be getting absorbed
est-os absorb-at-a(j)
(est-os absorb-iĝ-ant-a(j))
sal es bli-nt absorba
Past continuous
was (were) getting absorbed
est-is absorb-at-a(j)
(est-is absorb-iĝ-ant-a(j))
did es (es-ed) bli-nt absorba

Passive Voice of Being[modifika | edit source]

The passive voice of being is generally expressed in English with an appropriate form of the verb to be followed by the past participle. It is formed in the same way in Esperanto and Novial. Note that in contrast to the passive of becoming , in the Novial passive of being the auxiliary verb is followed by the past participle, which ends in -t.

Passive Voice of Being
English
Esperanto
Novial
Infinitive
(to) be absorbed
est-i absorb-at-a(j)
es absorba-t
Simple present
is (am, are) absorbed
est-as absorb-at-a(j)
es absorba-t
Future
will (shall) be absorbed
est-os absorb-at-a(j)
sal es absorba-t
Simple past
was absorbed
est-is absorb-at-a(j)
did es (es-ed) absorba-t
Past perfect
have (has) been absorbed
est-as absorb-it-a(j)
ha es absorba-t
Pluperfect
had been absorbed
est-is absorb-it-a(j)
ha-d es absorba-t
Future perfect
will (shall) have been absorbed
est-os absorb-it-a(j)
sal ha es absorba-t
Future in the past
was going to (would, should) be absorbed
est-is absorb-ot-a(j)
sal-ed es absorba-t
Conditional
would (should) be absorbed
est-us absorb-it-a(j)
vud es absorba-t
Conditional perfect
would (should) have been
absorbed
est-us absorb-it-a(j)
vud ha es absorba-t
First imperative
let us be absorbed!
ni est-u absorb-ataj!
let nus es absorba-t!
Second imperative
be absorbed!
est-u absorb-at-a(j)!
es absorba-t!
Third imperative
let him be absorbed!
li est-u absorb-at-a!
let lo es absorba-t!

Word Formation[modifika | edit source]

Esperanto's famous (or infamous) use of the prefix mal- to mean roughly 'un-' in English is used to a much lesser degree in Novial with the prefix des-.


Language sample for comparison[modifika | edit source]

Here is the Lord's Prayer in both languages:

Esperanto version:
Patro nia, kiu estas en la ĉielo,
Via nomo estu sanktigita.
Venu Via regno,
plenumiĝu Via volo,
kiel en la ĉielo, tiel ankaŭ sur la tero.
Nian panon ĉiutagan donu al ni hodiaŭ.
Kaj pardonu al ni niajn ŝuldojn,
kiel ankaŭ ni pardonas al niaj ŝuldantoj.
Kaj ne konduku nin en tenton,
sed liberigu nin de la malbono.
Amen.
Novial version:
Nusen Patre, kel es in siele,
mey vun nome bli sanktifika,
mey vun regno veni;
mey on fa vun volio
kom in siele anke sur tere.
Dona a nus disidi li omnidiali pane,
e pardona a nus nusen ofensos,
kom anke nus pardona a nusen ofensantes,
e non dukte nus en tentatione,
ma liberisa nus fro malu.
Amen.

External Links[modifika | edit source]

See also[modifika | edit source]